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Full text of "Primary geography, arranged as a reading book for common schools, with questions and answers attached"



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PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY, 

AEMKGID AS A 

READING BOOK 

9 * FOR 

COIIOISCHOOLS, 

WITH 

Questions and Answers Attached. 

BY 

M. B. MOORE. 

(SECOND EDITION.) 



RALEIGH, H. C, 

BRANSON & FARRAR 

FAYETTEVILLE STREET. 

1861 






P II E F A C E . 



Tin' author of this little, work, having found most of the juvenile books too complex 

%r young minds, has for some time intended making an effort to simplify the science 

of Geography! If she shall succeed in 1 .ringing this beautiful and useful study within 

the grasp of the little folks, and making it both interesting and pleasant, her purpose 

will be fully accomplished. 



( 



-pliULof- 



NOTE TO TEACHERS. 



The first part of this work is intended to be used as a reader: The second is to be 
studied as usual. The object of this arrangement is to make -the child familiar with 
geographical terms before he begins to study Geography. As a pupil, the author well 
remembers her difficulties at this point ; and as a teacher, she has been led to enquire, 
"Is there no easier path for the tender feet of the little ones '." 

>. Let the pupil read over and over again, the first part, and then the second will be 
simply a review, «? 



\ 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



LESSON I. 
U bat Geography Means. 

1 . In this book I propose to tell yon about 
Geography. I wish you to pay good at- 
tention, and it' I use a word yon do net un- 
derstand, you must ask your teacher to 
explain it to you. 

2. Some people travel over the world, 
and see nearly every country on the globe; 
but as every one can not do this, it is best 
for every boy and girl to study Geography. 



die earth draws us t<> it. We call this 
drawing towards the earth, alfoddtion. 
Were it not tor this wv should all tall off, 
like the water falls from a grindstone, or a 
water wheel, when turned rapidly. 

G. The earth is one of the planets. A 
planet is a body which moves around the. 
sun. The earth moves around the sun 
once in a year, and keeps rolling over all 
the time.. God made the earth and put it 
in motion, and it will move until he com- 
mands it to stop. Should we not love him 



Then when they wish to travel, after they i „ 

\ .1.1 i i-i f«" - making us such a beautiful home? 

are grown up, they will know which conn- ^ 

tries are most interesting. But very few 

will leave their own country, and thus if 

they do not read books and learn these i LESSON II. 

things, they must always appear ignorant. Change of Seasons. 

:"!. Then to study Geography means to 1. As the earth moves around the sun, 
learn about the surface of the earth. The j sometimes the sun shines straight down* 
surface is the outside part, on which we upon us, and we then have summer. Then 
live. Part of this surface is land, and part I the trees blossom and bear fruit, the birds 
is water. There are about three times more i sing and build nests ; and men plow and 
water than land. ' raise wheat, corn, cotton, rice and tobacco. 

4. The earth is round like a ball, and 2. When the sun first begins to shine 
turns over once in a day and night. When warm, and, the birds begin to swell and the 



the side on which we live is turned towards 
the sun, we have day, and the people on 
the other side have night. 

5. The reason we do not fall off, is, that 

IB 



< 



flowers to bloom, we call it Spring. When 
the sun gets high in the heavens, we call, 
it Summer. When the sun begins to sink 
back into the south, and the corn and fruit 



t; 



6EOOBA.PHIC A I R E A 1) E li 



get ripe, we call it Autumn or Fall. The 
sun now shines very obliquely by or slant- 
ing, and all nature becomes cold and bleak. 
The snow flak < too descend, and robe the 
earth in a mantle of white : this we call 
winter. 

3. These changes are called change of 
seasons ; and are necessary to the comforl 
and happiness of mankind: 



I 



LESSON III. 
Land. 

1. On the surface of the earth we find 
some large portions of land, containing ma- 
ny countries : these are called continents. 
They are surrounded by water and are ma- 
ny thousand miles in extent. 

2. We find smaller portions of land sur- 
rounded by water which are called islands. 
Some of these are far out in the ocean, so 
the people can not get away except on 
board a ship. 

3. Then there are narrow strips of land 
connecting two larger pieces together ; these 
are called isthmuses. North and South 
America are joined together by the isth- 
mus of Darien. 

4r. Sometimes a portion of land is nearly 
surrounded by water, but one aide is joined 



to a larger piece : this is railed a peninsula. 
Florida is a peninsula. 

5. Vhcn a point of land runs out in (<> 
the water we call it a capei Some caps 
are very high and rocky : these are called 

promontories. 

0. A portion of land raised up to a greal 
height is called a mountain. A smaller 
height is called a hill. Sonic mountain: 
have fire inside of them, and send out 
smoke, hot stones and melted lava; which 
somesimes covers up whole villages : these 
are called volcanoes. 

7. A plain is a portion of level land. A 
plain covered with sand is called a deserl ; 
and one covered with grass is called a prai 
rie. A low portion of land between two 
hills or mountains, is called a valley. A 
valley generally has a brook or river run- 
ning through it ; and produces line crop 



LESSON IV. 

Water. 

1. A large portion of the surface of the 
earth is covered with water. The largest 
bodies of water, are called oceans : the At- 
lantic, Pacific, Northern, Southern and In- 
dian. The Atlantic is the largest and i» 
obont three thousand miles wide. . 



FO*B Till-; DIXIE CHILDREN 



2. Smaller bodies of water arc called 
seas. A sea is nearly surrounded by land. 
The water of both a sea and an ocean is 
Fait. You could not drink sea water with- 
out making yourself sick. 

3. An arm of the sea running out into 
the land is called a l>ay or gulf. Some ol 
these are very large, as the gulf of Mexico. 
That potion of a sea or gulf which is so 
shallow thai its depths may be measured 
with a line, is called a sound. 

-1. A. large collection of waters cntire j 
ly Burrounded by Land is called a lake. 
Some lakes arc salt but rnost of them have 
fresh water like a river. Lake Superior 
is the largest in the world. 

#5. A stream of water panning over the 
land, is called a river. The place where it 
starts is call its source or head, the place 
where it runs, its bed or channel, and the 
place where it empties into the ocean, its 
mouth. Rivers are very useful to man. 
They turn mills and other machinery and 
carry boats upon their surface. Besides 
the finest farms are found along the river. 
The Mississippi is the largest river in the 
world. Tt is about four thousand miles 
long. 

C. Water is so useful, that man could 
not exist without it. He catches fish from 
it, for food; it bears his ships from one 
country to another, it turns his machinery, 
it waters his crops; and the best of all, 
forms the best drink in the world. 



LESSOX V. 

Hemlspheres« 

1. If you take an apple and cut in tww 
pieqes, you call thorn a half apple, if you 
take a bailor sphere and saw it in two 
parls, you have half a sphere. Now the 
word hemisphere means half, and the earth 
is round like a sphere, bo when the earth is 
divided in two parts, we call one a hemV 
phere. 

2. If we draw a line around the earth 
from north to south, we have the eastern* 
and western hemispheres. If the line is. 
drawn from Cast to west, we have the 
northern and southern hemispheres. \V, 
say we live in the northern hemisphere; be 

we are north of the equator. 



LESSON VI. 

Points of (he <onipass. 

1. You have often heard of the marine 
compass, and some of you have seen One; 
but as all have not. I will tell you about 
it. There is a certain star, called the North 
Polar Star, which you can always see of a 
clear night. There is a kind of stone, called 
loadstone, which, if a Ion- piece of it be 
fixed on a pivot, will always point toward,, 
the North Pplar Star. You may take vour 
fiilger and turn it around towards the eai r 
or wesl, hut it will move ba.-k north again 
•m m yon let it alone. 



U i :o G R a I' ii l ( a I i; i: a Die 

2. Now if you Btand with your face the Borne go at the rate •>!' twenty mile 
direction the needle points, to your righl hour^ andaome thirty or forty. This was s 
hand .will be east, your left west, and your greal invention. Fifty years ago people 
back south. You must get your teacher to could not travel faster than horses could 
show yon the Polar Star, and then you will draw them, which was forty or fifty mile* 
always be able'to toll what direction you per jjay. 

are traveling of a clear night. - '- Canals, railroads and bridges and all 

3. When you look on a map the top is things thai men make, are called theworka 
generally north, therignt hand east, the of art. Mountains, hills, rivers, oceans. 



bottom south, anil the lefl hand west! 

k There is one spojt of the earth .which is 
always turned towards tin' Polar Star: this 



seas, &c, are called the works of nature; 
because God made them. Tin- works <>l 
nature far surpass the works of art ; which 



is called the North Pole. The just opposite shows how much wiser God is, than the 
U called the South Pole. These points are wisest men. 

I pole- because of their relation to the 
Polar Star. ! . 



LESSON VII. . 
Canals and Railroads. 

1. A canal is a ditch dug by men, wide 
enough for vessels to sail along on the water 
with which it is filled. Some countries have 
no large rivers on which to boat their pro- 
duce to market, and these canals arc dug to 
answer in the place of rivers. 

2. When you grow up and travel, you 
will sometimes go upon the highway, some-] 
times upon the turnpike, and sometimes 
upon the railroad. This last is made by 
digging down the hills and filling up the 
hollows, and laying down iron bars for the 
wheels to run upon. Then the cars are 
drawn by steam, and move very fast. 



LESSON VIII 

Latitude and Longitude. 

1. When lines are draAvn around tin- 
earth from cast to west, the same distance 
apart, we reckon distance from one to an- 
other, and this is called latitude. Lati- 
tude means width, and is applied to the 
earth in measuring from north to south, be- 
cause it is considered not so long that w%\ 
as from east to west. The lines which 
marl? latitude are called parallel . 

2. If you look on the ma]) you will ob- 
serve there are other lines drawn from top 
to bottom. These are called meridians, 
and are used to reckon distances from easl 
to west. This being the longer way of 
measuring the earth, it is called longitude 
which means length. But you must not 









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\ Virginia, gjavglmrti 

* DELAWARE, NEW JEUS?Y, n d 
$ Part of Pennsylvania 



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think the earth is much s 
to south, than from eastl 
pat at the poles like an a 
and blossom ends. 

3. A knowledge of latii 
is of very great service t 
over the ocean. When 
feo many degrees east, the 
5£ sooner or if sailing west i 
U <cr. Tims they know ] 
awav from home. 



LESSON 
Zoues. 

The climate on the | 

WMrt! xev li - Around the 

- poles, the slm shines i 

^'m would make no shade 

This you know makes 1 

rami. They have no w 

Tlie trees are always covi 

flowers and fruits. Them 

and the flowers huge and 

them larger than a man c 

2. The animals are lar< 
There are many huge ser] 
Arc. Also venomous spid 
sects. The people are tall 
ed, indolent and warlike, 
course with lazy people, t 
norant. This is called the 

3. Around each of the 
'''qiiely that <h 



•At- .....-■■i 




10 



G E OG R A P II I C A L R E \ I) E R 



they havi _ >ls; and all who labor 3. When the white people came to £his 

can get a good education. Bui sad to say, country, they found a red or copper colorec! 
there are some lazy people in one*, race This people they named Indians, be- 



and .-Mine idle children in every school 
hope my little readers will not be idle. 



LESSOR X. 
Kaces of Men. 



[cause they thought they had .-ailed west un 
til they had come to India in Asia. They 
were tall, with long black hair, and high 
cheekbones. Thev v^ent nearly naked, and 
were cruel, and warlike. They were good 
friends, but terrible enemies. Thev were 
governed by Chiefs, and had no. hook 
The men who inhabit the £lobe, are not The women performed most of the labot, 
all alike. Those in Europe and America and were called Scmaws. This is called 
are mostly white and are called the Cauca- the American race. They now have hooks, 
sianrace. This race is civilized, and is tar Schools and churehes, and manv of them 
aboveall the others. They have schools learn about Jeaus. 

and Churches and live in fine style. They + • The African or negro race i, found in 
generally have wise and good men lor Africa. They are slothful and vicious, bul 
ruler.,, and arcgular form of government, possess little cunning. They are very cruel 
The women are treated with respect andlto catch other,. and when they Lave war 
tend. ..id in manv eases their wish they sell their prisoners td the white people 

is lav among their m ale fr'iem for slaves. They know nothing of Jesus, 

2 There \ of people who inhab and the climate in Africa is so unhealthy 

it mo I ia which i- of a yellow color- thai while men can scarcely go there to 

Thev areaqnict, plodding iVe, hut when pivad. to them. The slaves who are I. .and 
educated a,re sensible and shrew. 1. They in Ainenea'are inmuch heller condition 
I ., re g n lar lo,-,,, of Thev arc hetler \h\, bdttcr clothed, and 
rnniont, hut the;, areheatnen; I mean better instructed tfian in their native conn- ■ 
by this that the}' worship images made of try. 

wood and stone. Thev do not know about 5. These people arc descendants of Ham 
And yettheypray to those idols thesonof Noafy; who was cursed because 
much oTtencr than we christians do to our he did not treat his father with respect, 
^avior. This race is called the Mongolion. [t was told- him he should serve his breth 
\li ionaries have been senl to teach them rcn forever. That would seem a hard sen-, 
about Jesus. When they ever become con tence out, il was probabtj <\<>ur to sho\t 
vcried. ih. -\ bold fast then prof< ion ifld other children how wicked il waste tn 
arenot fickle like' some ra< ttieir parenl io. tfecan not teUTidw' thej 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



11 



, ;uik' fco be black, a Jul have wool on their 

6. There is still another race culled the 
Malay. They arc blapk and have wool 
on their heads, but not like the African. 
They arc very fierce and will die rather 
fehanbemade slaves. They are also cun- 
ning and treacherous, and will have little 
dealings with white men. They eat the 
licsh of their enemies, 'arid arc called canni- 
bals. They.hav.e killed several preachers 
who went away there to preach : but some 
of i hem have become christians. 

7. \<>w. dear children, you have heard 
how miserable many of the human family 
are. It they knew about Jesus, they would 
be happy asyouare. There are good nun 
who are willing to go and teach tlmm', but 
'out they lack money to bear their expenses. 
Can not cadh of you give something to help 
send the gospel to the heathen. 



I-ESJSON XI. 
America. 

1 . A grea4 many years ago the people 

thought I he earth was flal and surrounded 
by the ocean. Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
with, seme islands around the coast, were 
all the land then known. The people had 
ships and sailed along the coast, but never 
ventured out on the ocean. 

2. At length some wise men began to 
<"nclude that the earth was round like 
;> ball ; and that possibly they could sail 



wesl across the ocean until they came 
to the East Indies. This would be so much 
lesslabor than traveling across Europe and a 
great part of Asia to bring the sweet spices 
and fruits from that plesant climate. So 
Christopher Columbus as^ed the king oi 
Portugal to give him ships and men to 
make the. voyage,, But the kin-- and his 
Counsellor- thought Columbus was beside 
himself. ' 

o. Columbus then wen! to Spain tc ask 
king Ferdinand and queen Isabela to tit 
him out. After much entreaty, they con- 
sented, and the cjuecn sold some ofherjew- 
'cls to obtain money !o;- the purpose. At 
length he set sail with three small ships 
and ninety men. He sailed due west for 
three months without rinding laud. His 
men now became alarmed, thinking he 
would nrvertind the way back home. So 
they thought they wdrild throw him over 
board and return. Columbus agreed to 
I" return, il in three days land was nol 
found, dust before ihe time expired, a man 
on deck cried out LcmdJ L<Mb&! And 
sure enough there Mas land. This was as 
island on the coast of America, and it look 
ed so much like the East Indies, that this 
group was called West Indies because they 
found it by failing west. 

4. Columbus returned to Spain and told 
the glorious news. Then many ships came 
over, and soon the country was settled. 
But the early settlers" suffered much from 
hardships, and from the hostility of the in- 



12 



OG I' A P II T C AL R E A DE El 



dians, When the whitt men first came ili« 
savages treated thein kindly; but soon 
some wicked menbejajaii to cbeal and take 
advantage of the indians. The indians in 
return took revenge by burning whole n II 
lages, and killing the inhabitants in their 
beds' or as they run half naked through the 
Bnow. r.ut the white people increai ed; and 
made war and drove back th^indians into 
the wilderness, until they arc now nearly 
all beyond the Mississippi River. How 
much better it would have been if all had 
acted fairly, and lived together" in peace! 
:>. These indians were very ignorant. 
They dressed in BkinSj lived on the flesh of 
animals which they killed with their bows 
and arrows. They had no gunB, no houses, 
do tools to work with, no fields, no horses 
nor cows, nor hogs, nor sheep, as we have. 
They built little huts of sticks which they 
.ailed wigwams, and covered them with 
skins. They used bits' of sharp rock and 
shell to skin animal? and cut up the flesh. 
They ba«l never heard of Jesus, but thought 

when they did wrong, the Great Spirit was 

angry with them. They prayed to this 
Great Spirit, somewhat like we pray to 
God/ 

6. The continent of America is divided 
in two parts, North and South America. 
They are joined together by a narrow strip 
of land called the isthmus of Darien. The 
New World, as it was long called, is noted 
for its great rivers, large lakes-, tall moun- 
tains, &c. 

7. This New World should have been 



called Columbia all i l who 

discovered it; but- one Americus Vespt 
made a voyage to the New World. •. I 
lished a book about it. bef« ■< ' iinibt 

lit. Thus the world began to call the 
new land America, in honor « f An ericus 



LESSON XII 
\ortli linciifa. 

1. The northern pari of North America 
is a cold desolate region. In the extreme 
North west, lies Russian America. This is 
governed by the Emperor of Russia. The 
people live mostly by hunting and fishing. 
The snow is very deep there, and covers the 
ground nearly all the year. All the wild 
animals have fur and are hunted for their 
skins as well as for food. 

2. On the northeast we u \ an island 

i , i 

called Greenland, or Danish Aim m. This 
belongs to the king of Denmark. The 
country is cold and bleak. The people aire 
a hardy race, of low stature, quiet and in- 
dustrious. During the long winter nights 
the parents teach the children to read. 
They are called Esquimaux, and are as much 
attached to their cold, barren country as we 
can possibly be to ours. 

BRITISH AMERICA. 

1. This division lies between Greenland 

and Russian America. It is governed by 

the Queen of England. The southern por- 

| tion is not so cold and bleak as the polar 







-JZ&W 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



13 



regions. In the Canadas, the people raise 
grain and Lave some fruits. 

2. There are not many mountains but 
many large lakes and rivers. The St. Law- 
rence between the United Stales and Bri- 
tish America is a grand river on which are 
some great water falls. Niagara falls is the 
finest in the world. This river drains the 
great; lakes. The largest of these. Lake Su- 
perior, is nearly live hundred miles in length. 
'They are also deep enough fur. the largest 
ships to sail upon. Sometimes these great 
lakes are all frozen over so the people can 
travel on the ice. 

THE UNITED ST A I 

1. This was once the most prosperous 
country in the world. Nearly a hundred 
years ago it belonged to England ; but the 
English made such hard laws that the peo- 
ple said they would not obey them. After 
a longj bloody war of seven years, they gain- 
ed their independence ; and for many years 
were prosperous and happy. 

2. In the mean time botli English and 
American ships went to Africa and brought 
away many of those poor heathsn negroes, 
and sold them for slaves. Some people 
Baiditwaa wrong and aSked the King ol 
England to stop it. He replied tkat "he 
knew it was wrong ; but that slave trade 
brought much money into his treasury, and 
it should continue." But both countries af- 
terwards did pass laws to stop this trade. 
In a few years, the Northei n States finding 
their climate too cold for the negro to be 

2 



profHable,sold them to the people living far- 
ther South. Then the Northern States 
passed laws to forbid any persou ownin» 
slaves- in their borders. 

3. Then the northern people began to 
preach, to lecture, and to write about the 
sin of slavery. The money for which they 
sold their slaves, was now partly spent in 
trying to persuade the Southern States to 
send fheir slaves back to Africa. And 
when the territories were settled they were 
not willing for any of them to become 
slavehofdiug. This would soon have made 
the North much stronger than the South ; 
and many of the men said they would vote 
for a law to free all the negroes in the 
country. The Southern- men tried to show 
them how unfair this would be, but still 
they kept on. 

£' In the year 1860 the Ablitionists 
became strong enough to elect one of their 
men for President. Abraham Lincoln was 
a weak man, and the South believed he 
would allow laws to be made, which would 
deprive them of their rights. So the South- 
ern States seceded, and elected Jefferson 
Davis for their President. This so enraged 
President 'Lincoln that he declared war, 
-md has exhausted, nearly all the strength 
of the nation, in a vain attempt to whip 
the South back into the Union. Thousand;) 
of lives have been lost, and the earth has 
been drenched with blood ; but still Abra* 
ham is -unable to conquer the "Rebels" As 
he calls the South. • Ihe South only asked 
to be let alone, and. to divide tlie public 



u 



clOGhaphical reader 



propcrt? equally, ft would have been 
wise i;i iTic North to have said South- 

ern siste is, " If yon ;.:v not cou tent top well 
with us longer, i! nee. "y\Y wiii 

divide tl i e inheritance with yo\i, and may 
you Be h grt-at untia 

5. TIllS country ]■-■- ;ii:m'\ - 

has tine cities and towu&j many railroads, 
Bteainho: \>, nianufaeturcs,/Sre. r i 1 n • 

pern I : n ) "?' n gi ;UI( ' 

are' noted for ct in "driving a* bar 

rain" They ined, and intelligeni 

on all qpbjeefs but that'o? negro slavery, 
on tii-: they are liiad. 

6. The large lakes (he long fivers, the 
taU lnounfaiiu . a, ith the beautiful farmi 
and pretty towns and villages, make this 
a very iuteroeting country to travelers. 

: i!i.::x 0ON1F1 DERACT. 

1. These states lie south of. the United 
ea, and possess a warmer climate.— 

The latter are mostly siiiiti d to raising grain 
and cattl«, while the former grow mon. 
cotton, race, ti and sugar cane, wit!, 

some cattle am aiu. A large por 

lion of tlie country lies on the sea coast, 
and is level and sandy. The interior por. i 
tioiiB are hilly and mountain 

2. This country is well watered. by largt 
rivers, and has many line harbors. Ol \ 
some of these harbors, are large cities ; but. 
the Couiederate States possess few ships 

her cities do not grow so last as if then, 
was more commence. Rut we have reasoi 
to hope that in a few years we ©ball no 1 1 



fall behind any nation i:> point of com- 
■ cawy it <>:i. 

;; - a great country!' Tlie Yan- 

l In night- to starve* us out when'.thej 
theii ships to guaid our seaport towns. 
Ui"1 we have learn -i'l to make many tinners: 
tc do without in 1'iy others ; and . 
U trust in the smiles of the (l,n\ of bal 
We had few guns, little ammunition, 
ami not much nf anything ' ,;; ' 1,H 
and tobacco; hue the peop'e helped them- 
selves and God helped .1 We 
were con id red an indVleht, weak people, 
but our enemies have tbund us :!r<>! or, be- 
:ausc we had justice on our side. 

4. The Southern j eople are r 
being high iniaded and courteous. A stran 
;er seldom lacks friends in this> country'. 
Vluch of the li eld work is done by si; 
Tliete are generally well used and often have 
is much pocket money as their mi&tree 
Hie;/ are contented and happy, and mi 
of them are christians. The sin of the 
South lies not in holding slaves, hnt they 
.are sometimes mistreated. Let all the lit- 
Je boys and girls remember that slaves are 
liuman, and fhat God will hold them to ac- 
count tor treating fhein with injustice.' 

o. The Southern Confederacy is at pre* 
out a sad country ; but Pjreident l)a\ is ie 
a good and wise man, and many of the 
generals aud other otfioern in tlie army, are 
pious. Then there are many good praying 
people in the land ; so we may hope that 
our cause will prosper. " When the right- 
eous are in authority, the nation rtyoiceih, ; 



fOR THE DIXIE CHILDBED 



1* 



but when the wicked bear rule the nation tives do not know anything about them. 
aVourneth." Then remember, little boys. Some day, this • me a fine country. 

when you.are men, never to vote tor a bad 
man to govern the country. 



.MEXICO. 

1. This eon n try was found to bo more 

■• than any of thenations inhal 

h America. The Indiana were Cpiiet 

oua, and had . : _;hi good houses, 

and cities, and tempi*. .They also had 

tea, and - -■■'■ ■ ; . ' I ' diver. 

i no book 8 but made pictures to 

remember things that happened. 

•2. Bat the Spaniards came and killed Hie 
people, and took theft* gold and stivei 
lands. The Spaniards then the* 

country, l>nt they have never proj»p< 
The country is still in a torn np condition, 
and they have war nearly all the time. 
The curse ofheaven seems tit rest upoii them, 
treating the. poor Indians ^u cruelly. 
'. The climate is very mikl and produces 
all the vine fruits and many rare flowers. 
There is a range of mountains through the 
country, some of which are volcanic. 

• GCATTMALA. 

country occupies the most south- 
ern part of Nor.h Ameiiea. The climate 
' and unhealthy. The country has nol 
bi»eh so rapidly settled as most others^— 
There are seme portions of stone bniidifi^s 
to be found, which beeiu to have been built 
before the white pec pie came ; but the La 



lesson xm. 

South America. 

1. In the northern part of South Amerl- 
ea we find New Grenada, Venezuela, and 
Ecuador. The first is .a broken country, 
consisting of thi si mountains, t'he 

loweot >,, • hills. The, 

rivers rush u iwit r ';o mountain sicles, and 
form many pretty s or water falls. 

»tiii fry is pleasant ancTheakny, 
but 

- and 
•h'es, b.; -v ignorant. 

L'jiuau Catholic. 

ECCADOIl. 

1. Thtscountry f ibleLwid 

i:i /Vuieriea. It lies between two ranges of 
the Andes, and is about thirty miles wide. 
^ i ' akvays spring there. Ou the same 
tree you wljl find large and small leavas, 
flowers and fruit. In one field yo:i see the 
reapers, and in the next the plowman scat- 
tering seed. Then turning your eye ap 
ward, you behold the lofty tops, of the Ire 
des^ coveted with snow. Should you climb 
one of these mountains, ] >;r_ before -you 
reached the top, yon would become very 
cold, your breath get short, and the blood 
gush iiuiu your nuse and lips. No man 



1C 



GEOGRAPHICAL HEADER 



yet has been able to reach the top of the 
tallest of these mountains. 

2. The inhabitants are livery and 
and live mostly on flesh and fruil 
of late year.? are beginning to raise pair.' 
If you should go there to dine, yon would 
see ants running all over the table, and 
sometimes when a tart was cut, yon would 
find nothing but ants inside. In fact, in- 
sects are so plenty that the people can 
scarcely live for them. Near the rivers 
there are large serpents, alligators, caymans, 
Ac., which annoy the people very much. 

VENEZUELA. 

i. This division consists mostly of vast 
plains, covered with grass. On these are 
thousands of cattle, horses, and other ani- 
mials. Some men own a thousand head of 
cattle; others hunt .wild ones, and sell the 
hides and tallow. The people raise fine to- 
bacco and some grain. 

PERU". 

1. This is the most noted country in South 
An erica. The people were more civil, and 
lived more like white people, than any Other 
trite. The King or Inca ruled gently, and 
wafi obeyed as, children love and obey a 
father. The people said a long time 
there came a man and his wife from 
heaven, who lived with them, and learned 
them to spin cloth and to worship the sun. 
When these peo.ple died, their children be- 
came rulers of the country. 

2. When the Spaniards went to Peru, 



they took the gold and silver from the na- 
. hilled their Inca, and took possession 
of the country. But it has never flourished 
since. These cruel Spaniards have never 
prospered in any country, as much as some 
nations. Judgments will always follow 
wicked new 

3. The surface is hilly and mountainous, 
and the climate is delightful. There are 
rich mines of gold and silver there. 

BOLIVIA. 

1. This was once a part of Peru. Its 
mountains are very high. Sorato is the 
highest mountain in the New World. The 
table lands, between some of these moun- 
- are so high that the clouds never reach 
them. • The sun aiways rises and shines all 
day long there. Would you not Ime to 
live in one of those cities above the clouds, 
where it never rains nor storms? And 
strange to s;n , there are fine fields of wheat, 
rye, corn, &c, on these high table lands. 
The land is watered from rivers which run 
down the sides of the mountains. 
• 2. The city of Cnsco is found here. This 
was the residence of Peruvian Incas, and is 
a fine pity still. Some of their temples are 
yet to be seen. 

CHILI. 

1. This is a narrow strip of land, lying 
between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. 
It is called the " garden of America, because 
it is such a fruitful country. But the peo 
pie do not build tine houses and cities, for 



< 



SS) 






r/ 







FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN. 17 

>he reason tbat there are *> many earth- 1 and as large as a common apple' tree, oaetna 
quakes. I am sure you would not like to twenty feet high, &c. He also learns to 
live where there are eartlujtiakes every few ' drink Paragnay tea. which is quite pleasant, 
years. Sometimes a whole city sinks, and but it is difficult to levre off the use of it 
sometimes a city is raided up higher. Bu1 alter drinking it awhile, 
the people there are cheerful and do not I 3. Gum Elastic or India Rubber is made 
seem to fear danger more than we do'. from a tree growing in this country. A 

2. The Indians in this, section arc very hole is made in a limb, and the sap drips 
warlike and cruel; mid disturb the white upon a piece of leather. When this dries 
people very much. Chili once belonged to it is fit t'ov use. 

4. There are many horses in this country, 
:ind the people settfbm walk. Even the 
beggar begs on horseback. Xhc.people live 

•1. This is a cold region beenfiying the inlaw mn'd houses which arc so fall of rer- 
southern point of South America. The Until that the£ often wrap* ftp in skins and 
country is barren, and the savages so crue ->leep outdoors, when the weather is warm, 
that few white people go there. 'A largi 
islam! nearby contains many Volcanoes, and 

• railed Terra Del FuegO, or the land o: 
fire. 

LA PL VTA. 



Spain, but after a bloody war they became 
free. 

PATAGOMA 



BRAZIL. 



1. This division occupies about half of 
i South America. Its mountains are not so 
? high as soriifc but its rivers are very largo. 



! r5 — — ' •* «-' 

1, This country lies east of Chili. Its Hie Amazon is the largest in the world. It 



name deuotes bUvci*, and is So called, be 
cause so much silver was found there 
The climate is pleasant, the country level 
I the soil good. Some <>f the vast plain: 
me covered with thistle and clover, som< 
ii.tall grass, and some with trees. ' Titer 
are many wild horses and ca'tle in the.-. 
plains, and sometimes wlvcn the dry 
and thistle stalks u - et on tire, hundreds o 
them are ■ death. 

2. There the traveler finds manv sii 
plants and trees." A pine with colics' a: 
'argc as a child's head, the -■"<k of whic' 
Are g >od to eat ; retcU as tall as our trees 



2l 



3 one hundred and seven ty-n'yc miles wide 
it its month. Tiie land near the large riv- 
;rs is very rich, but the climate is unheal- 
hy, and few people live there. But people 
ire settling theroj on this will be a 

ntry. 
This is perhaps the most beautiful part 
»,' South Anierfaft. M my pretty pi 
hieh we cnltivate with so mu h care arc 
lierc '■ icre are orange 

iring both f I blossoms at 

imi'j gay flowers, graceful creep- 
ten times us large as 
any we hi i 



15 



GEOGR A P 11 1 C A f READER 



3. As the traveler walk?, the 

xo be alive with insects while birds of 
beautiful plumage, make the forest ring, 
with their cheerful songs. Then 
many cattle in the country, but they are 
generally raised ''■ Sou will be 

surprised to hear that they obtain milk 
from a tree called the cow tree. They 
make holes in the«t: . early in 

the morning with jugs to get miik for the 
family. It looks and taste much lik< 
milk, and when it stands awhile, a yellow 
tance rises to the top like cream. The 
milk also becomes tough after standing in 
the air, and the people then call it chi 

4. There are many large animals and 
huge serpents, and frogs as large a- a child's 
head. The inhabitants are ignorant. 
There are many negro slaves, who arc often 
cruelly treated, and whose ttm but 
little better off than the slaves. Many of 
these slaves are kept hunting for, diamonds 
and gold dust. The people ai 

lent to make good farmers. They plant 
grain almost in the woods, and cultivate 
it but little. But in a few years this will 
become one of the finest farming countries 
in the world. Several missionaries have 
gone there to preach to the people. 



LESSON XI V. 
Virginia 

1. This large State lies m the north i 
era part of the Southern Confederacy. It 
is frequently called the " Old Dominion. " 



Tlie erri part is mountain' i 

middle hilly and 1 Ik- eastern level. The 

i- mostly good and you will find large 

ins, bearing dm numbers 

of the iii. • :k. Western Virginia u> 

i 
i. All persons >■ ' fond of 

ittof and cheese would do well 
there, 

2. The higher ell aoted for 
hospitality and for high living. Son* 
these claim ;•■ Pocahos 

- which they t honor. 

You kn< tionta? was the Indian girl 

-av.'d the life of Captain John Smith. 
during the early settlement of Virginia, 
The people used to have many wars with 
the Indians, and then they bora their part 
in the Revolution and in the war of 1S12. 

3. In the war forindependenee. thif State 
has suffered almost as much as any. I 

Is of families were run from their hoi 
and lost all they had except their clothes, 
or a little money. Many houses and farms 
were destroyed, and the country laid waste. 
Such are the effects oi' war. 

4. This State has many fine rivers: the 
Potomac and the James are the largest. 
There an rail roads, and canals, 

of the finest harbors in the world. 
Norfolk was the main sea-port town and 
contained a line navy yard; but tlie enemy 
has spoiled it very much. 

Richmond city is the # capn\al of the State. 
and also of tjie Confederacy. This is a 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



19 



goodly sized city on James river. Presi- 
dent Davip resides there, and Cfofl^ 
meets there to make law.-. Many of the 
large buildings are used for hospitals. 



and corn and ootton mostly in the eastern 
and southern. The soil of about half the 
State is good, but much of the other is so 
live on it are very 



there are thousands of sick an poor. The swamp lands in the east are 



soldiers constantly there, Th< .• 
to be much wickedness in the city. 

6, There are a good man; manufactories 
In this State, andalmost all kinds of articles 
are made. But the country produces corn, 
wheat, tobai- • abundance. 

There are many planters who own larg< IS Gape 

numbeis of &la\ re gene rench Broad. &c 

'.'/ell treated, and are ae h 
any under the sun. It' they are si< k mas- in the east. There are also several railroads 
/(./■sends . r. if the < the eastern and middle parts of the 

they are sure of enough to save life ; if the 

are- growing old, they know rhey-wilffre I. Beaufort and Morehead City are sea 
provided for; and in time^of-war, they j H towns. Wilmington is a large com 



very fertile. The west is suited to grazing 
— we mean by this; grass grows we», and 
are easily rai 
3. There are many large rivers in this 
State, ami the low grounds along them are 
fertile. Some of the principal are- 
Fear, Yadkin, Dan, 
an boats ply on 
There are some canals 



erally remain quietly at home, while the 
master goes and spills his blood for hi 
•'ountrv. 



LESSON XV, 

Xorth Carolina. 

i. South of Virginia, we find .•mother 
large State. . called North Carolina. Like 
the former, the western portion is moun- 
tainous, the middle hilly, and eastern l< 



ial town near the mouth of Cape Fear 
River. 1 This is noted for it s trade in tar, 
pitch and turpentine, which are produced 
abundantly in the eastern part of the State. 
SjTewbern was a pleasant town, but the 
enemy have spoiled it, and driven away 
the people. Fayetteville on the Cape Fear, 
in Cumberland county, is a large town. 
The stat.- Arsenal is', located here, • and 
many guns are made. The guns and gun 
machinery, were moved, from Harper's 

' to this since the war began. 



But there are not so many high mountains Th Raleigh near the .middle of the 

in this State as in the other, nor is , the capital. Thi* is often called 

middle part so hilly.' "City of Oaks" Greensboro, Salis- 

-• Wheat,- oats, rye, corn, and tobacco, bury. Chariots, and Statesville are fine 

.3 raised in the north-western portion : i towns on tko railroad,?. Salem is noted as 



9C GEOGKAPHICAL KEADEB 

a German settlement, end forits celebraf' I y pmuVnes -wicked Tiations by war. l 

acheola fof. young ladies. mean by tins that when people become too 

5. The people pf oted for wricked, He gives them over to a hardness 

r honesty, and far ' slow but of heart to work out their. own punishment, 

sure." No braVer men fought in the war and sometimes destruction. How mi 

.. endence than those from North better for all to be-good. 
Carolina. While some few cowards refused 2. This State is mostly level and sandy. 
to tight for their country, \t is a rotable fact. The climate is very mild, and suited to rais- 
rhat nearly all of them, were of tlje ignorant ing vegetables- and fine fruits. There are 
M, and many of them did not know what not so many apples, peaches, pears, grapes, 
patriotism was. We should feel as much &ei, raised here as in North Carolina; bat 
• for them- & mse they figs and oi ■•wn ; am! before 



Lad not been properly 

6. Education was much neglected in the 
Old North State, until wirhin a few yeai> 



the gardens of Virginia are planted, the 
and snaps of Charleston are blooming. 
and lice are principal products 



past. She now ha> as many good schools l of the soil. 
and coUegi as any sister State. Good 3. In this State, as well .as in North < 
rapti ow building up schools to ed«- olifia, there are many cotton millsarid wool- j 

Mtfe die children of poor soldiers who are en factories, vhk-h produce excellent do- 
killed in'tlds war. Nearly every child can" mestics and jeans, besides spinning much 
iret an education here if he will beind otton yarn for the mother's and "sisters to 



Who will be ignorant? 



LESSON XVI. • 
South Carolina. 

1. This is a Bmal! Stal south m 

th Carolina It is washed on the sunt] 
east, by the Atlantic Ocean. 

■State."' This was t! i 
le. ilauy ji '""'d tl i 

.. leaving the j 



weave up. In some of these factories, ne- 
._•••<> Blaves perform the -work. 

.•I. The people of this State are noted for 

• ivalry. Von do not understand 

- We I, when any one imposes upon 

,:■ motto it to light. Also if they 

ii person; bad! 

'_ loir haling men have 
Ii ided," bee 
, ...... ,,, q U1( •. •! an injury. % 

The iipp icatedand re- 

ined, but the po< •• '•- norani 



South Carol in m 

„,., ,„,„ ; ,,„; 1, may have hew M ; it i. i <!« laW » perfohned by^oj 



\ ,i;p..- ,-i'de for us to d»'cide. The ws> 



... arc hird'y so well treated as in North 



• Juki Lavo cuaic, aooacr Wiua ,ul ^ u-g.ma ; but tfe* Lave toe 



% 









. 













FOE THE DIXIE CIIILDItEX 



2 A 



gospel preached to them, avid arc generally fine forests of pine and oak, with swamps 
ontented and happy.' • interspersed. Then comes a section of high- 

6. Charleston is the main city, and i >f about sixty miles, then another 

seaport town with a fine harbor. Columbia us wide reaching to the foot of the hilly re 
the capital of the State. This has gions: theie«two belts are sandy, and are 

ocation, and is noted for its fine groves and covered with long leaf pines. Then we 
neat appearance.' It is situated near the find a hilly region* of good land well water- 
centre of the State. There are several rail- ed with spring branches and rivers. In the 
roads, and other mark- of art, which mala; northern part are the Bine Ridge and some 
thifc an- interesting State.. her mountains.* 

6. There are large pine forests, from 2. The principal rivers are the Savannah, 
which the people make tar, pitch -and tnr- Chattahoochee, and Altamaha. ' The first 
pentine: these are shippc 1 and sold in otll- is navigable 250 miles; large ships ascend 
Br countries. But during tha war the ports it; to the«city annah. Many of the 
were so blockaded that these artich others are navigable, for some distance, 
not shipped. Thus the products of the country are easily 

7. On the Coast lie a chain of beautiful carried to market. Cotton and rice are the 
slands, which are covered with" live oak. .principal productions, but much lumber, 
laurel with blossoms as large as your liar. tar. pitch and turpentine are also exported 
and the finest fields island cotton. There are some minerals in the State; gold 
Bat the enemy have spoiled most of these, is the most abundant. 

and stolen many of the negroes who tilled 3. The city of Savannah stands on the 
the land. They told the slaves they were river of the same name, 50 feet above the 
ree, and even formed regiments, of them to water, [t is one of the finest cities of the 
tent against their masters. But the neg » th, and is noted as the chief commer- 
s too cowardly for a soldier and cial city near the coast. Farther up the 

ut little service to his ^Northern friends. j Savannah river, we find the city of Augus- 
ta. It is an important city, and is hand- 
somely built. The streets are said to be 
shaded by the pride of India. There is 
much cotton shipped from this place; and 
| the people of this section are xa-y cnter- 



LESSOX XVII. 
Georgia. 
1. This is almosl as large a State as Vir- 
ginia. The climate is plea.- ant. The 
ace is varied. The sea coast is level foi 
ome distance inland. -This is covered with 



prising in all kinds of ss. jVfilled^c 

villc is the capital of the State and is a 
pleasant place. 

4. The Cherokee Indians occupied part 



•2% 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



of this Stare, *nd had learned to live n 
like the white people. They had fine farina 
with cWves to work them, good houses, 
mucli cattle, sheep, hogs and horses. Tliey 
al*o Lad a newspaper* and sent their chil 
dren to good schools. But in the year 1^3*J 
■ people made a treaty with them, 
to pay them 5,000,000 dollars to remove >. 
Indian Territory, where they were to bave 
seven millions acres of new land. So most 
of them went away, and now live in the 
wert, where there are more' limiting 
grounds, and where the white peoplt 

.-t then'. Thie tribe arid others 
- • >uth in the great strug- 

gle far independence. 



lesson xvin. 

rierldai 

!. iliis ip a peninsula lying between the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Afexico. 
The extreme point is very low, -and often 
mostly covered with water. The middle 
portion it, level and sandy, covered with 
pine forests. But there are a tew spots of 
good soil whirl) make line farilft. The 
try is well watered with rivers, man\ 
•of which are navigable some distance. Tin- 
climate is very mild. Oranges, tig*, pom - 
granates, &c, grow there in abundauce, 
with many beautiful flowers. 
• 2. Cotton is the staple production. Su- 
gar cane is raised to a great extent. Indi 
go wad formerly raised here. The live oak 



g-ows hfre in abundance. The Uwocc oi 

. this tree is used for ship building, and in 

in great demand. ^e most durable 

hers for building^ ships. Cedar log* 

and staves ar- ported. 13ut Florida 

r suited for a grazing country, because 

of its fine ^-tsr:i;- 

• *• 

3. Florida first belo 
to Great Britain, then to Spaii 
afterwards £o the United States. It is now 
one of the Southern Confederacy . 
t" be Called Florida from bearii 

i-. 

4. St. Augustine is tin- q in 
our country. Jt ' [y in, ruins. 
Tallahassee ia (he capital. The coast is 
-hallow, and Florida possesses few good 
liaj bors. 

."». The rnd.ians in thi= State did not 
move 'went; and, though they agreed 
to go, yet their able chief, Oseola, declared 

id gave the United States much j 
hie. riiis brave chief was at length killed, 
and his people submitted to the whir, 
(j. I must not omit ti> tell you of the fur- 
found on the coast of Florida. There 
arc lour sorts— the Green, so esteemed for m 

; the Ilawkl.illed, wdiose shell makes 

such preth combs; the Trunk turtle, and 

the Loggerhead. When about to lay her 

ftrsrs, the turtlcdiirs a hole in the sand with 

: 1 1 1 1 flapped about eighteen iili 

; then deposits her i*ggs in nice l\ 

•and covers them np with sand, the turtle 

then goes back into the water and leaves 

ike sun t< L-h the eggs. Aienhuut these 



OGP.ArniC/3 BEADEE 



9.1 



eggs and sell them. They find from 150 to I 
a nest, 'and they are considered very 
fine for eating. As soon as the young tin'- , 
•rate!] <>ut of the sand and 
betake themselves to the water. 



LESSOR XIX. 
A'abaina. 
1. This State lie-: Most o'' Georgia and 
■ of Florida. The Lh\c Rid • ifttends 
into the Northern part, ll»e middle is : » vast 

i, an.] the Southern consists of a • 
level, hut little above ilic BinfWe oi the". 
sea. This is covered with pine ba*rens.and 
prairie*. The cane lakes, wheu cleared oft' 
afford the Lest cotton lands. Sugar-cane; 
and lice also grow finely in this region. 

9. \h\& State affords coal, iron, gold, and 
marble, hut the mines have nut been ex- 
rely worked. There ic not nuieh 
manufacturing, nor a great deal of com- 
merce. The people are mostly planters,! 
and own many slaves. These are general- 
ly -sell treated, an J have the gospel preach-; 
them. 
3. Mobile, at the mouth of the Mobile; 
Rive/ :s the principal city. Montgomery 
: 8. the capital of the State, and is situated 
cm the Alabama Iliver. The Mobile Kiver 
: s formed by the junction of the Alabarma 
*nd Tbe Tombigby. Steamboats' run on 
both these rivers, and fthips. ascend the 
Mxibiie some diai-.«.nf».s 



LESSON XX. 

%. West of Alabama, we find the State of 
Mississippi. This is mostly level, inter- 
spersed with hills.. These hills often have 
le Btee^j a:- 1 one called bluffs". The 
bestern border along the Mksissippi eon- 
pp. Between the Yazoo and 
Mississippi Rivers, there are 70<»i> s<pmre 
miles of this swamp land, which are over- 
tl .wed nearly every year. The banks of 
the livers there, are very low, and when 
the -now melts up north, some two or three 
thousand miles, and all accumulates in the 
rather of Waters, as the Mississippi is call 
ed, his banks are unable to contain the 
mighty torrent. 

2. The people have built high walls of 
dirt along the banks of these rivers to pre- 
vent the high water from overflowing the 
lands. These are called levees. During 
rhe war, the enemy have broken dm;n the 
levees western side of the Mississip- 
pi,. and caused thousands of acres to be 
overflowed. 

3. This*State is well watered by many 
line streams. Several of these are naviga- 
ble. • The Mississippi is 4,100 milee long, 
and is said to he the longest river in the 
world. The. Amazon in Sonth America is 
larger, but is not quite so iong. No river 
iu Europe or Asia can compare with these. 
Jackson is the capital of t e State. Natchez, 
225 miles above New Orleans, is a beauti- 
ful city, but is subject to the yellow fever 
occasionally. Large abipi coma up to this 



24 FOR THE DIXIE OIIILDBEJ*. 

place, at) d 6omft years there arc about (if- season, a lar.jc tract of country is inuuda 
ty thousand bales of cotton shipped from led. 

its port. •_'. Tii Mississippi Itiver forms the boun- 

4. H<" nvici'lrt' State and Miasieai|>- 

t 50ni ti of that powerful tribe l>«. »»til asliort wj- from its mouth. This 

tiled the! . They were] g lvatriver thro ehes which run 

more polished than their savage neighbor* the country and enter into the gulf. 

and had i • laws, and an established These are called bayous. They are sluggish, 

worship. had an altar sacred to the stagnant streams, except during the floods, 

and kept a constant burning thereon at which 4knes they become wide-spreading. 

>r of the Great. Spirit. When the The Mississippi has seyeral mouths as these 

French went there, the natives received bayora are called, and the land between 

-hem kindly,but soon they disagreed, and themiscalled tlfe Delta of the river. 

the Indians killed the whole settlement. ! 3. New Orleans stands on the Mississip- 

The French then sent a great force into the pi and U'tMe largest commercial city in the 

i made slaves Southern Confederacy. It stands on a dead 
early all the rest of the tribe. level, and at high water, the river would 

5. This section once belonged to the overflow it, but for the levies, or emhank- 
French, then to Great Britain, then was ments of earth, which are thrown up to pro- 
claimed by Spain ; and Anally ceded to the vont this - Some tinle8 tllose 3evees breR k, 
United States. At the beginning of the and considerable damage is done. The 
war for Independence, this State seceded traveler is struck with the narrow streets, ■ 
and has nobly done her pari in the greal and old fashioned houses. But the newer 

, portions of the city are built in good style. 

Etru rr "iO. ' 

00 The river here is half a mile wide, and 

from one hundred to one hundred and sixty 

feet (leep, and it continues about the same 

Lli I. width and depth down to the sea. large 

ships lie close up to the levees, and hundreds 

tt them may be seen lying upon the water 

like a forest of tall trees. 

fto"*of IKis State is low and level, with 4. The inhabitants of this city drink wa- 

some little hilly ranges, and many basins ter from the river. This is always muddy, 

or low.spots. A good portion of the State j md has to be filtered or allowed to settle; 

is luwerthan the bed of the Mississippi, am. .md in warm weather, the people buy ice to 

caMCQuently, when the floods come every , cool it. Ihteioe is shipped arouud from 



Louisiana. 

1. Louisiana presents a broad front to the 
sea of about three hundred miles. The sur 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDBEN 












- 



■ 








ork, and is a profitable business. 

,- ib very subject to yellow fever. 

he Red River is the largest eastern 

i of rhe Mississippi. It rise3 in the 

mountains, and after a course of two 

1 miles, enters into the Father. ot 

> this State. xVbout five hundred 

'us river was found a raft exteud- 

Jfclred and sixty miles. This was i 

;ts tailing in the river, and had 

>ut before vessels could as- 

was first occupied by the 

xs afterwards ceded to Spain. 

i again, and finally to the 

Till.- was one of the earl/ 

iVheu the revolution broke 

has she done her part. 

a .d the gallant Beaure- 

" v ose name is familiar in 

■ ■ i much spoken 

^•-m Catholic is 

SjSpi) ; though 

ie present 

during 

and 

•! 



LESSON XXII 

Texas. 

1. This country om 
Mexico; but the people rebel 
a short war, became independ 
afterwards annexed to the 1 
but now forms a part oi 

fed era -y. 

2. The State was loi 

uore of bad men who ran aw 
being punished ; but of late 
become a thriving State. It 
try for grazing, and much st 
The climate fs mild" but some 
sant. You may ride out 
evening, and before you ret 
will blow up so cool that you 
up your blankets for sleepis 
called Northers, and blow up i 
The nights are cool all the tb 
tion. No matter how oppre 
may be by day, you are alv 
cool night. 

3. This State has seven 
emptying into the sea. 6a 
principal seaport town. A 
capital. This State has not 
from war. 



LESSON XXfi 
Arkanii 
-». of t 



rtf 














FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



25 



lessor xxn. 

Texas. 



New York, and is a profitable business. 

The city is very subject to yellow fever. 

- ' w ■, -r.. • A i i i. _ * 1. This country once formed a part of 

5 The Red River is the largest eastern . . «? ' , , 

v lue xvc ■* ; h Mexico j but the people rebelled, and after 

branch of the Mississippi. It rises in the I s][ort ^ hfXtLmQ independent. It was 
Rocky mountains, and after a course of two afterwarda annexe d to the United State-, 
thousand miles, enters into the Father, ot blltnowformga part f the Southern Con- 
Waters in this State. About five hundred f^era-y. 

iniles up this river was found a raft extend-! ~ g ^ gtAte ^ {o0g Qoted for {U fef 
ing one bundled and sixty miles. This was uge rf . ^ men whoTin away to prevent 
formed by trees falling" in the river, and had bring punished; but of lata years it has 
to be cleared out before vessels could as- ! becQme ft tliriving State< It is a finc 

k,t>na - try for grazing, and much stock is raised. 

&. Louisiana was first occupied by the j The climate is mild; but somewhat unplea- 
r-Yaaeb. It was afterwards ceded to Spain, sank You may-ride out of a pleasant 
then to France again, and finally to the evening, and before you return' the wind 
United States. This was one of the early*, w m blow up so cool that you return to take 
states to secede when the revolution broke: up your blankets for sleeping. These are 
out'; and nobly has she done her part '.' called Northers, and .blow up very suddenly. 
This jjjf}te produced the gallant Beaure- The nights are cool all the time in this sec- 
2ard, the general wliose name is familiar in tion. Xo matter how oppressive the heat 



every household. 

7. The French language is much spoken 
in this Stat..', and the Roman Catholic is 



may be by day, you are always sure- of a 
cool night. 

3. This State has several fine rivers 



perhaps the prevailing religion; though emptying into the sea. Galveston i- the 
i here are many of other sects at the present principal seaport town. Austin is the 
time. The State has suffered greatly during capital. This State has not suffered much 
the war. The people have been robbed and from war. 
tent from their homes in many eases, and* 
the towns and cities piljaged and burned. 

8. The soil is adapted to the culture of LESSON XXTil. 

eottOD and sugar, and is moafly good. ! \rkaiftas 

of f*is black as ink. BatoirEouge is , ~. . . » • , 

t j ie capjtafc l * • ln ''- s \ 9 <me °* tiie lle ' A ^ ta ^' v - I< hes 

_ between Louisiana and Missouri'; with Mis* 



GEOGRAPHICAL K £ A D E R 



non. 



26 

' rpi and Tennessee on, the east, ar the east the AfiMfc 

dian Territory on the west. The surface is ■ Illinois, K< otm 

broken and li illy, witii sonic m< • ■ • .. lian 

Tbc eastern] north Wisconsin, i 

'-■level and swampy. But much <■' l'art of the country and 

, w drain - enltiva> mpilntainous, but other portion? a e t< 

marshy. 

2. Arkansas Is well supplied with navi" 2. The State is well w> 
gables:: rhe Arka sRed, the sippi < Missouri throu 
White and the Was] noble rivers, centre, th« Kansas, Big. Black, Osage and 
The- soil is. generally good, and the products others, afl contribute ta make this a r 

rally are corn and cotton. This section. Sortie 6f tin- hills are rag^ 
State abounds in minerals of various kinds- barren, but for the most pan the couitWfc 
There are also mineral strings of great well timbered .with pine, sycamore, ba 
variety, and seme hot spring "?'■ ™> tton * ood ' sugaWnaple, etc. Li 

to boil an egg. :in excellent fanning section. 

3. This slate hi 3. Little ; 3.^be minerals of Missouri are \ «ri< 
Rock is the capital, the State has been 1 valuable. Lend, iron, /.ink. pluuibngo. ar- 

settled by emigrants from the other sonic, «fcc, are found. Shot factories are lo 
States. They elect their governor for abated on the high bluffs of the Mississi] 

. of four years," and all white -men whi the .Y mult ]e!ld and pour it thrtfcigh 

have]i< sixmonl s; whe* in falling some distance' the 

vote if 21 years of nge. The sale of lotto- shot are formed, and drop on thi- sand be 
ry tickets is prohibited by law, and there low. 
are d ate. | * 4 - Tm sis a great grazing •. and 

4. This State lias suffered terribly during vast herds of swine, cattle and noises ure 
thewari The enemy hav* ravaged nearly ra ?»^- The owners have little to do be 
the i iVand'lhe wrongs of tne pcio- s,des t0 mark aild turn their Btoek uut ^ a,,d 
pie are heart-rendering. But there AS a! ^^ them in when they aiie fat Much' oi 
God of vengeance and ere long the*- bi#liye stock is placed on Jarge flat boats 
Cerers will be avei iind conveyed on. the rivers to tin* towns 

^_____ and. cities for sale. Corn, wheat, cotton, 

' „ ! tobacco, and other products are raised. w 

LESSOR XXIV. The American Fur Company consists of a 

Missouri. , good many men who sell fur-, and buy 

L Missouri* is the second State in size, in i wool, mules, &c. • In thf city vi St. Louis 



FOE THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



they have a large house containing thou-l 3. Tnis State has suffered dreadfully dur- 

sarids of skins and dried buffalo tongues. , ing the war. The people were much divid- 

5. Jefferson City i» the capital. -'id did not secede with that unanimity 

Lonis is the principal city of Missouri, and which most of the other States did. 



contains many fine churches and other pub- 
lic buildings. It stands on the west bank 
of the Mississippi, and steamboat's ply be 



enemy have devastated much of the State ; 
but the brave spirits there will yet conquer, 
and this will be qtig of the finest States in 



tween it and many other important points, the Confederacy. The Indians fr >m Indian 
Thus you observe it is quite a commercial Territory, hare joined the Southern army, 



village situa- 



'Mfy. 

0. New Madrid is a small 
ted on a high alluvial bank of the Missis- 
sippi. Alluvial means Loose earth which 
has been inarshed or thrown there since the 
creation of the earth. Every.year the riv- 
er carries away » portion of this bank, and 
in time it will all be taken off. 

7. About, fifty years ago, there was a tor-j 
rible earthquake in this section. 



and made themselves useful to our cause. 



LESSON XXV. 

Kentucky. 

1. The §tate of Kentucky is separated 
on the north from the United States, by 
the Ohio River. Virginia bonndsit on the 
It was 'east, Tennessee On the south and the Missis- 
it. New Orleans, and even in. South | sippi River on the west. .The Cumberland 
Carolina and Georgia. But in th Mountains occupy that part of the State 

the earth opened in wide chasms, and sent noxt to Virginia. Then the Ohio Hills lie 
forth columns ot>and and water Some! alon g a few miics from fc «® 0hJo Ri*W 
hills sank down and left lakes m their Besides these the country -is, partly hilly, 
places. Some lates were rail o the and partly level; the low portions lying 



•eater ran out and leftjdry land. The beds 
of rivers were changed, and even the Mis- 

ppi was turned back in its con 
whole hour, till the wefght of the w 
broke over and formed a new channel. 
Boatd were dashed again- banks, or 

left in thedry channel; while thelightning 

flashed, and the earth rumbled tender than ^ uck 7> Licking and Sandy, crossing 
any thunder. Some 
been felt 'since, but 
ceased now 



hear the rivers. These river valleys are 
very fertile ; and much of the hill country 
produces finely. 

2. Their State is nobly watered. The' 
beautiful Ohio on the north, the Mississippi 
on the west, the Tennessee and Cumberland 
in the south-west ; and the Green, Ken- 

the 



slight 



shocks have i |^ tate north- ward and emptying 
they nearly, 0mo * Tiie re S ion watered by tbe Ken- 

tucky, the Licking and Salt Rivera, is de- 



28 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



scribed as the garden of the State. Most' 6. This State like Missouri was much 
of these rivers are navigable, some fifty', divided meentimeal when the war broke 
some one hundred, arid < • - out, and ha much; but it i» be 

three hundred lieved that when the matter is left to the 

region Mtcl ! people to . deeid^^bej will ; declare *hem 
abounds in caverns, and subterraneous sclv ^ Southerners. Many of her gaUanl 

stream^ ivera running ^oiifi are fighting for Southern righto.*' 

underground. Sometimes they burst our ~ Frankfort is the capital. It i, * flour 
ofth. form a river large .enoughMingoit) on the- Kentucky River. Louis- 

to turn a mill. ' : « Cave extends *iUo is the principal Commercial city. It 

about tv - and a hair under the stands on the Ohio, and steamboat* can 

ground, and Iti are large/and beauti- \ te ^ h >' ;>t !tl1 seasons. It has much trade 

f u] . Butwh . rou must talce ft » a 5 * tho ■** of ***& manufacturing, 

lamps or tore il is all 'dark 

in there. 

4. The mineral productions are iron, 
coal, salt, and saltpetre. Salt is obtained 
from salt springs. These springs v 
ed licks, by the early settlers, because eat- on the north, Kortli Carolina on the* east 
tie were fond of licking around, them. In- Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi mi t.h< 
. hemp, wheat, and tobacco, arelsouth; and Missouri and Arkansas on thi 
e cotton is raised: Thi.» ■ W - S! . The eastern partis mountainous, flu 
is a fine section for stock raising. The middle hilty and the western level. Tneis< 



LESSOR XXVI. 
Tennessee. 

I. Tennessee hasSKentucky and A' i'roini.-i 



hor.-' itucky are eonsidere'd very ex- 

.it ; and large numbers of ho^g are 
dri\ en every j ear to other Stairs. 

5. This State formed a part of' Virginia, 
and was first explored by hunters from that 
Stale and JSTorth Carolina. Col. 



section- are spoken of as East, Middle, aud 
\V< s1 Cennessee. The Alleghany and 
Cumberland mountains extend from Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky southward through 
this. State. 

2. We find here many noble rivers aud 



Boone was one of the lead< tie was a] fine pure streams. The Mississippi washes 

man and had many lights with the the western border for 160 miles. It is tra- 

Indians. • Sometimes whole families were I versed by tlie Cumberland, Tennessee, 
murdered, and others went back to their Clinch, Holsten, Elk, Duck, Obion, Fol'ked 
native places, but atill'population increased (Deer and Hatchee ; which are all navigable 
and it soon became a ilom*ishing State. streams. 



jsa«K— teBfirissM i' if Tiar» iia«-L'L'iae:aj*3'j^fcags^i' 



■ 



i 




S^J-as= ~r - 1 ' ^ ^ 



SW&SSS HMM' In I I — J 1 f i. ' ' .<T , ^rag . .f g^-<? - in , n ,1, i m i I . IH ' W II 



• -•-- 








JmaS 









rrrlfl I 






/ 




Tr 



*v\ n 



JtPOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



*y 



3. Iron, gold, coal, and salt are flic lent papers and periodicals published in- 
principal minerals. A: large portion of the this State 1 most of them 
soil is productive, and agriculture is the are suspended. ' 

chief occupation inhabitants. .In-i ,; . Hashvill'e is <4 Ml of the State. 

(ban corn and cotton are the chief ids on the On d River, and is 

tions ; bul wheat, hemp and >. are a uiccclty. The enenn took this- place the 

much grown, 0- razing is much attended first year of the war, and have not yet been 
to in tl\c ■ - : tii part, and many I '• driven from ii : but] they will beere long, 

are raised and driven eastward to inafifcet- The JxFethodisI Churcli have a publishing 
The ptne forests of this section also 'afford hi i . and many good booksaremadc 

mr, pitch and turpentine. Several rail- for tin.- whole Confedi . Memphis ia 

roads Jiave b< tith' built, and qanais inerpal i-ify in \V< I Tennessee, [t 

dug, so t'u ;• opie li;t\c good iu< :"- of stands on a high bluff ou the Mississippi, 
sending tlieir produce to ina^fl above the I ods. 

I. This Stafc formed tfany hard battles have been fought 

Nnrth Carolina, and like Kentucky, the here elnri dependence: 

hunters whg settled there wci*e much But though she cLnow, and suf 

annoyed by ,thu Indians who met there [fers much, no Oiie fears for Tennessee, 
to shool [Buffalo and Elk. But emi- is nobly doing her d when the war 

d in and soon tin's beautiful is ended, she will i if ourbest Stajtes. 

me afState.. . Many pure spirit* . for pea 

i>. r i'lie Legislature of • has a-ndif weallb Ives as we should, ' 



made provisions for educating the children 
and besides, there are several hue Coll 
and Seminaries; sonoone has an excuse for 
being ignorant. There wore wl- 



. be blessed with the glorious 
Peace ! Peac* ! '■ Peace ! ! ! who 

will not n]'!'. s when it coined 



mU 



PART 



K E V I E W 



LESSOS 1. 
Q. What have you * been reading, about 
A. Geography. 

(^. What does it tell \<>n about I 
A. The eartk 
Q.| What is the earth? 
A. The planet on which We live. 
<). What is the shape <;f the; eartfe ( 
A. Round like a ball! 
Q. Docs is stand still '. 
A. No ; it tarns over. 
Q. How often does it turn r 
A. Once in a day and night. 
<<>. Why do We not fall oft'. 
A. The earth draws ha to it. 
Q. Do* s it have any other motion t 
A. Tt move* aronna the buxi. 
Q. How pften 1 
A. Once in a vear. 



LEfeSON II. . 

Q. What does the daily motion i>f the 
earth give us I . 

A. Day and nig&t. 
. Q. When orir side of theeartL i> turned 
towards the snn what do we liave '. 

A. Da^v. 

Q. What is it oa the other bide i 

A. Sight 



Q, As the earth moves around the »nn. 
sometimes the sun shines straight down 
upon us ; do we then have warm or cold 
weather '. 

A. Warm. 

Q. When it shines slanting upon us. what 
do we then have ? 

A. Cold weather. 

Q. What do we call these changes f 

A. Changes of season. 

Q. When yon toast a piece of brettd 
before the fire do you set it straight up, or 
lean it back V 

A. I set it up. 

Q. Whys 

A . Because iifc bro w o s faster. 

Q. But what of the other side i 

A. It. ir^ Cold! 

<l- Then when wo haw. summer here, 
what; do the people have on the opposite 
side of the earth I 

A. They have winr-.r 

Q. When we, have winter, what d-> the; 
:.hHve I 

A. Summer. 

U- At the Equator, the Min.ehines straight 
down all the yenr ; what do the peoplis there 
have* 

A. All Summer. 

Q. At the poles, the snn shines very slant 
log all tlic time ; what do they hpvQ there \ 



34 



Q E O G UAl'HICAL K E ADEK 



A. All winter. 

(£. Ifl not thai a ajw 

A. 11 L- 



pjfce 



LESSOR 111.. 

Q. What is the surfa fie ear^hi 

A. Hie outside. 

Q. How is it divided ' 

A. Into land and water. 

vj. How much i= water '. 

A. Three parts of it. - 

Q. How much is land I 

A. One part, or one fourth. 

Q. What d<> wp ^:i!l a very large portion 
of land! 

A. A Continent. 

Q. How many Continents aire theit ' 

A. Two! 

Q. What are they called ? 

A. Eastern and Western. 

Q. How is the eastern o»»;it3 Idod'i 

A. Into Europe, Asia and Africa.- 

Q. Bowie the western eontinenl 

A. Into North* and South Americ 

Q. On which eontinenl do you li.vc '. 

A. On the western. 

Q. Li wEatdiyision of the western conti- 
nent do you live : 

A .In- the 'Southern Confederacy. 

Q. In what State d r e.3 

A. [n 

Q. In what county .' 

A; ID- 






<^>. In what luwu '. 
A. !r, - — 



r<ESsp5 iv. 

Q. What d.o you call a port i >nnd 
surrounded by water , ; 

A. An island. 

Q. what do you call a point oflaud ex- 
tending into the water? 

A. A cape. 

Q. What do you call a narrow itrip of 
lajid connecting two other pieces of land! 

A. An isthn 

Q. What do you call a low piece of Land*? 

A. A valley. 

Q. What do von call a level piece of \kv.A'- 

A. A plain. 

Q. If it is covered with sand : 

A. A desert. 

Q. If it is covered with grass ! 

A. A prairie. 

Q, What do you call a portion of land 
rai ed very high \ 

A. A mountain. 

Q. A portion not so high as a mountain : 

A. A hill. 

O. What do you call a mountain which 
has lire inside of it I 

A . A v< ilcanb. 

Q, What .do volcanoes, throw out? 

A. lire*, smoke, hot ashes and la' s 

<. x ). What is lava ! g 

A. Melted stone.-. 

Q. Arc there volcanoes in your country'' 
A: I nevei heard of any. 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN. 



35 



LESSON V. 
Q. What is a very Jftrgid tfody of saftj 
water called " 

A. Ati ocea 

Q. How nuu>j seeans are then- 1 ; 

A. Five. 

Q. What are they called i 

A. Atlantic, Pacific, l"forth*rn, Southern! 
and Indian. , 

u. Which is largest ' 

A. The Pacific. 

g. Which is smallest! 

A. r Dhe tndian. 

Q. How wide is the PWErfrtelf 

A. Throe thouaead miles. 

v t >. Wliat do you call a smaller body of 
salt water? 

A. Aisea. 

Q. "When :i portion of waterrans up Into 
khe laud. what is it called * 

A. A bay or golf. 

<4- When a portion of water I- entirely 
surrounded by Land what do we caii le '. 

A. A Lake. 

Q. 1V> Ifikeh have sail or fresh water t 

A. Seme are* salt, and some are fresh. 

c^). What do you call a stream of water 
runniag over the land I 

A. A river. . . 

Q. What is .'i small stream called I 

A. A brook or creek. 

^. What makes a creek or brook t 

A. Kills and branches running together. 

Q. Where do the rills con)e from :- 

A." From the springs. 

Q. And whore do the spring uxiginate < 



A. The rain fall*, and soak6 into the earth, 
where it niue alrfng until if finde an open 
ing ; this i-. a gpring. 

Q. When the sun shhies on thp oceans 
and rivers, what issnes? 

A. Vapor. 

Q. What is vapor i 

A. Fine drops of water. 

Q "Where doe* it go ( 

A. It goes into the cloud*. 

Q. When ir falls, wlint do yo« Gall if ? 

A. Rain. 



LESSOR VI. 

<J. What is a sphere ? 

A. A globe or ball. 

Q. What is a hemisphere I 

A. A half a globe. 

Q. If 1 make a line all around the earth 
froin north to south what will you call one 
half of it? 

A. A hemisphere. 

C^. Then you have two hemispheres; what 
do you call them '. 

A. Eastern and Western. 

Q. Suppose I. draw the line around the 
earth, from east to west we have two* hem- 
ispheres also ; what do you call them \ 

A. Northern and Southern heinLsphere?. 

(3. Which hemisphere do we live in ? 

A. .The northern. 

Q. How do yon know ( . 

A. Because I live north of the equator • 

Q. What ie the equator? 



36 



GEOGRAFHICAL READEE 



A. The line which rims around the earth 
half way between north and south. 

Q. Which do we live in, the eastern .»r 
western "i 

A. The v, ester:. . 

Q. Why? 

A. Because we live we*t oi' Greenwich. 



LESSON YU. 
Q. What sails on the water t 

A. Ships and boats. • 

Q. What do they cany ffom ode country 
to another ? 

A. Goods, *piet?, sogar, coffee, gold, pil- 
vfj, &c. 

Q. What move.? the ship* upon the ocean? 

A. Seme are driven by steam and Borne 
by wind. 

Q. Whtft lives in the water : 

A. Great wuale3, sharks and fish of all ei- 
• 

Q. For what were these made ' 

A. Some fur food for man, and j»onie for 
animals to live apon: 

Q. Who made them all I 

A. Gotfc 

g. What ifci a '/ahi*'. 
A. A belt or girdle. 
Q. How many /ones are there ' 
A. Five. 

Q. What is that called which ) ies anmnd 
the. North Pole ? 



A. The north frigid. 

Q. That around the south pole ? 

A. South frigid. 

Q. Wnat does frigid mean ? 

A. Cold and frozen. . 

Q. Then what is the climate in the frigid 
zone i 

A. Very cold iudeed. . 

Q. What kind of people and auinui - 
there ? 

A. A few short, hardy people and some 
animals with tough skin covered with fur. 

Q. What of the trees? 

A. They are not taller than i( man and 
bear no fruit. 

Q. What is the character of the people t 

A. They are industrious and good na- 
tured ; and seldom go to war. 

Q. What zone do we find OB ;hr- equated 
V. The torrid. 

Q. What does torrid mean i 

A. Hot. parched up. ■ 

(,). Then what is the climate there i 

A. Verv warm » al ways summer. 

(y What kind of tree.- v ill you find there* 

A. Very lull, with tar-ge leaves and fruit 
and blossoms nil the year. 

Q. How large are some oi the leaves? 

A. Large euowgls to carpet a coram* a 
sized room. 

Q. Do the trees hear large fruit : 

A. Some of them bear fruit larger than 
1 could cariy . 

Q. What of the people there i 

A. The? are tall, of dark completion " 
verv indolent and warlike. 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



il 



Q. What of the animals ? 

A. They are very large and ferocious. 

Q. What of the reptiles and insects ? 

A. There are large crocodiles, and huge 
serpents, many feet long, and many veno- 
mous insects. 

Q. Is this a healthy zone ? 

A. It is very unhealthy. 

Q. What zones lie between the torrid 
' and the frigid ? 

A. The temperate. 

Q. What do you call the oue next to 
the north frigid zone ? 

A. The north temperate. 

<^. What do you call the one tiext the 
south frigid ? 

A. The south temperate. 

Q. In which zone do you live? 

A. The norfn temperate. 

Q. What kind of animals are common 
there ? ] 

A. Mostly domestic. 

Q. What are domestic animal* ? 

A. Horses, cows, sheep, &p. 

Q. . What do you call bears, panthers, 
wildcats, buffaloes, £c.? 

A. Wild animals. 

Q. What of the people the. 

A. They are industrious, patient and 
intelligent. 



A. They are not, but most of them can 
be if they will strive. 

Q. Should not every boy and girl 
make efforts to get an education ? 

A. Thev should. 



Q. 
A. 

Q. 
A, 

Q. 



Q. 



What does intelligent mean ? 



A. That they read books, and leant 
many things to talk about. 

Q. Are all the people in this /one edu- 
cated ? 



LESSON IX. 
How many races of mea are there P 
Five. 

What color is the Caucasian ? 
White. 

What color is the Indian ? 
A. Red, or copper colored. 
Q. What color is the Mongolian ? 
A. Yellow. 
Q. The African ? 
A. Black. 
Q. The Malay ? 
A. Nearly black. 
Q. Which race is most civilized ? 
A. The Caucasian. 
Q. Which is the best educated? 
A. The Caucasian. 

Q. Which are the most ferocious and 
savage ? 

A. The Indian. Mongolian, Malay and 
■African. 

Q . Is the African savage in thi s country ? 
A. No : they are docile and religious 
jhere. 

Q, How are they in Africa where they 
first come from ? 

A. They arc very ignorant, cruel and 
wretched, 



38 GEOGRAPHICAL READER. 






Q. 

A. 

A. 

A. 
and . 

A. ■ 

white 

we have 
I 
A. 



Q. es a country what 

A. 

Q. l to help him gov- 

ern, w 

• A. A 

will is he can take 

lives or • • it do 

• 
A' - 

h rulers call 
A. 3 

A. The oh dng becomes 

.kins on his father's death. 



Q. Suppose lie is a wicked and had man 

• he still govern the people ?. 
A. He mi: 

VmiUI not the people be very 
bed under such a ruler? 
A. They would. 

Q. How can they help themselves? 
A. Th ally have to bear it until 

their kin 

| le elect a man by voting, 
to rule over them, what is he called? 
A. A president. 

l r or what length of time are presi- 
dents elected ? 

A. In the (Southern Confederacy they 
serve six years ; but in the United States' 
only four. 

Q. If people elect a bad president, what 
is done at the close of his term? 
A. Another man is elected. 
Q. What is our government called ? 
A. A democracy- 
Q. What is a democracy ? 
A. Where the people elect their own 
rulers. 

Q. What kindjrf men should we elect 

vera our country ? 
A. Good and wise men. 

Q. 

.A. " When the righteous are in au- 
thority, the people rejoice, but when the 
wicked bcareth rule, the people mourn. « 

</. Where do you learn this ? 
• A. From the Bible. 

Q. Will God curse a nation because of 
wicked. rulers ? 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



39 



A. He says he will. 
Q. Then when yon little boys grow up 
to be men, will you remember this ? 
A. We will' try. 
Q. If the people of the United S<" 



Q. What is 4 . of the earth? 

ill. 

'■'-' ■ 
A. Chfi 
(>. Who 



had always elected good men for rulers king? 



what would have been the result? 

A. We should have had no war 

Q. Why? 

A. Because every man would have 1 
willing to treat others j 
would have been no cause foi 

Q. Are these judgments for our sins 
alone ? 

A. They are partly for our .-..ns, and! 
partly for the sins of our forefat! 

Q. Then how shall we expect pi 



A. Kin 

A. 

A. 

Q. 



since sin has brought war ? 

A. We must repent of our sins, and ask A: Into.' 
God to bless our effort*) to defend our conn-, . \ 
trj. A. 

Q. Why so? 1st; 

A. Because, '*' If God be for as . 
shall be against us." ' A. Ame 









LESSON XI. 

Q. -What did t-je people £hink of ithe 
shape of the en rib a 

A. They thought it was flat, 
rounded by the oceam. 

Q. What embraced the land then 
known to them? 

A. Europe, Asia, and Africa ; with some 
islands around the coast. 



■ 

A. . •• 

Q- 

Northeaol. 



4U 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



A. Greenland or Danish America. Qi Wtatto.«tfdofEeaad 

Q. Where is British America? A. It contains the finest table laud in 

A. Between Greenland and Russian America. 
America. ! Q,' Of what does Venezuela consist 

Q. What divides the United States and; A. ^ a st plains covered with grass 
British America ? Q- For what is Peru noted ? 



A. The St. Lawrence river. 

Q. What view do we find on that river? 

A. The great Niagara falls. 

Q. What may be said of the United 
States ? 

A. It was once the most prosperous 
country in the world. 

Q. What is its condition now ? 

A. It is tumbling into ruins. 

Q. What brought about this great ca- 
lamity ? 

A. The injustice and avarice of the 



A. For its delightful climate and rich 
mines of Gold and Silver. 

Q. Which and where is the highest 
mountain in the New World? 

A. Mt. Sorato in Bolivia. ' 

Q. Where is Chili situated? 

A. Between the Andes and Paciriic 
.Ocean. 

Q. What is it called on account of its 
fruitfulness ? 

A. The " Garden of America." 

Q. Describe Patagonia? 

A. It is a cold, barren land, occupied 



Yankee nation. 

Q. Where do the Confederate States lie?[ b 7 savages 

A. South of the United States. j °- What does La Plata denote ? 

Q. For what are they remarkable? r A - Jt means a country of silver. 

A. For the rich production of Cottony Q- What other valuable article 
Rice, Tobacco, &c. 

Q". Who is President of the Confederate 
States? 



is ob- 



A. Jefferton Davis of Mississippi. 
Q. Who is Vice-President ? ' 
A. A. H. Stephens of Georgia. 



LESSON XIII. 

Q. What States lie in the northern part 
of South America ? 

A. New Grenada v Venezuela, and Ecu- 
ador? 



tained from La Plata ? 

A. Gum Elastic or India Rubber. 

Q. What do we find in Bcazil ? 

A. The largest river in the world, the 
Amazon . 

Q. How wide is it at the mouth ? 

A. One hundred and fifty miles. 

Q. What uncommon fact is mentioned? 

A. The people obtain Milk from a tree, 
jailed the cow tree. 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



LESSON XIV. 

Q. What is said of Virginia ? 

A. It is a large State, in the north eas 
tern part of the Southern Confederacy^ 

Q. What is it frequently railed ? 

A. The " Old Dominion." 

Q. How is Western Virginia ? 

A. It is mountainous, and one of th< 
finest grazing sections in the Soul! 1 . 

Q, Eor what is the higher i 
eiety noted ? • 



Wheat, Qa I T - 

'O. 

: 
A. C 

'.'■' 

Ikin, 
Dan, &c. 

t 

A . , 

• 
A. A 1 



A. For its hospitality and high living, mouth of ! 
Q. Who was Pocahonl 

pent; 1 



A. The' Indian girl who saved the life 



the 






of Captain John Smith. 

Q. Name the first ,i Virginia? 

A. Potomac and Janus. 

Q. What is Norfolk'? 

A. It is the main sea-port town, ai*l 
contains a tine navy yard. 

Q. What is Richmond city?. 

A. The capital of the State and of the tcr t : 
Confederacy. 

Q. Where is it situated ? olina ? 

A. On the James river. A: 

Q. What hody meets tin. » 



Q. \ 

u 



- 



laws ? * 

A. The«Confederate Congress. 



Q. 
A. 



LESSON XV. 
Where does North Carolina lie ? 
South of Virginia. 



I A. Th« 
Q • 

on the rai 

A. 
State 

•i forth 



Q. W T hat is raised in the uurthwi 



portion ?" 



till Pllbii 



42 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



Q. For what are the people of the State] A. Savannah, Chattel, and Al 

noted? j tain aha. 

A. For their bravery and honesty, and Q. Wlmt are the principal product] 



being " nlow hut sure." 



LESSON XVI. 

Q. What State is south of North Car- 
olina ? 
A. South Carolina. 
Q. What is it often called? 
A. The -•' Palmetto State." 
Q. Which was the first seceding ^ ; 
A. South Carolina. 
Q. For what are the people noted? 
A. Fur their chivalry 
Q. What isthe Capital u1 theState? 



Q. 

A. 
bor. 

Q. 

A. 
Q. 

A. 



Columbia . 

What is I Iharlestou ? 
\ ea-porl town, wrtli r 



tin 



har-l 



\ A. Cotton and Rice in the southern 
^and corn in the northern part. 

Q. What is the Capital of Geor^ 

A. Milledgevilh- 

Q. Who occupied pari of this Sta 

A. The Cherokee Indians 

( v >. ll(A\ did they !i 

A. They lived like the whites ; hai 
fine farms, and slaves to work them 

Q. What did the whi le make 

with them in the yea/ 1836.? 

A. A treat;., to paj them 5,000,000 
dollars to remove to Indian territc 

Q, What are they to have 6ke'r< 

'A. Seven mi llioi w land. 

(^ Flow do i hey stand in i > 1 be 

j... jent struggle for independent 

A They take i li 1 he South, and 



What do we see od ihe coast ' 
A i bain of beautiful islands 
What- do they prodm 
Sea island cotton, the finest in the 



; right with vengeana 



world. 



LESSON XVII. 



LESSON XVII! 

Q. What is Florida? •' 
A. A peninsula, If ing between jjhe At- 
lantic Ocean and^ thiTGulf of Mexico. 
Q. How is the climate? 
Q. What is said of Georgia ? A. !t is very mild and pleasant. 

A. It is almost as large as the State ofj Q. What grows here in ahundano 
Virginia. A. Oranges, I'm.-, pomegranates and 

Q. How is tin- climaie? jrnauy beautiful rlow< 

A. It is pleasant'. ' Q. What is raised to a great extenl \ 

Q. What we the principal rivers ? | A Cotton and Su#ir Cane; 



FOR THE DIXIE CHILDREN 



43 



Q. What tree grows bere in abundance : i _ Q. Whrf ; s Mobile '.' 

A.. The live oak. A. It is the principal cit] 

1,1. F ■••• what is if vale 

A. For ship building . the most A. Montgorae^ 

durable of timbers. 

Q For what is Florida beat suited 1 ; 'tl the Alabama I i 

A. For a grazing country,, because ol ' ' two rivers form the Mobile riVe 

iie pastures. 
Q. To what powers did Florida bek 

Firstto Spain, then to Great Britain, 
then to Spain again, and afterwards ro the 
United Stare.-), and now t<> the Southern 
• 'onfederacy. 
Q. '' died Blorj 

taring so man} flowe 
^ the Capil 

A. Tal 



A. The Alabama and Tombigbj 

■ 






viz: tl 

ik and liOgg • 

bm 150 to 200 i 






ESSON xix: 
1 iio» 41 

||..W« rgia and North oi 

Florida. 

A. Coal, iron, gold a I ma 

Q A'u t .i-i 

A. Mostly planters, i man 

slaves. 

Q,. II >w .,-•' the slavea treated ? , 

\. Kindly, and havefcb I preach- 

ed to them. 



' 

A. -alis of dirt, 

along 

Q. V\h:. 

A. Levees. * 
Q. How 
A. 4,100 

hat ia the 

A. Jack 

Q- ' 
A. It is a beautiful >t to 

ie yellow fever. 



44 



<n:OGliAPHJ0AL READER 



SOX X Q- How is the dim 

q, Whatiseaid fL A - ^ ' s mild, but somewhat u'npleas- 

A. It p :!1|i • 

of aboril tliree hundred miles. Q- ' 

-q A. The nights are cool all the time, no 

A. It is low and level, and a large por- matter how oppressive the heat of the 
I of it lower than the hed of the Mis- ( ' ; - v - 

Q ■ \ 



SISSippi TV 

■ m »ntb? 
A. It has se> .Med bayous. 

on called ? 
The D< •: vcr. 

Q. .'• 

A. It is the largest commercial city *in 
the Boutl ern Confederacy. 
Q- ' 

Crescent .City/' 

Q. Bj ua firs), set I 

French. .• 

A. Grew i 
Q- \ 

\. I iton Ilou<re. 



LESSOl II. 

Q. 

A. It was a pa i ■ 

Q. V 

A. hort war 1 

became : 

Q. F 

A. As the r ; . • ran, 

away to prei 
\ b t is it 

A. A ba fine for graz-i 

mg. ; 



A. The principal seaport town. 
Q. ( 

A. Austin. 
Q. His i much t'rom the present 

WAT 7 

A. It has not. 



LESSON XXIII. 

What is Arkans 

A. One of the new States. 

Q. '•' -V' West ? 

A. Indian Territory. 
Q.. li ••■ ; ., : be i ui face V 

A. Broken and hilly, with some moun- 
tains. 
Q. What are the principal rivera '. 
A . Arkansas, Red, White and Washita. 
Q.^Hia: ■ | rodaotiooa ? 

I 'otton and corn. 
I Pound in the State V 

A. A variety of mineral springs, and 
springs, hot enough to boil eggs, 
the State? 
A. Little Bock, 

ettled? 
A. ts irom the States. 

Bherr Governor ? 
A. A term of lour years. 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



45 



LESSON XXIV. 

Q. What, ia Missouri ? 

A. It is the second State in size in the 
Confederacy. 

Q. How is it hounded . 

A. On the east by the Mississippi river: 
on the west by the Indian Territory ; on 
the north by Wisconsin. 
Q. W . trihute to nnke it ri. 

A. Mi vansas, Big Black, Osage 

and othei 

Q V, ' ■ we find here / 

A. i, . . iron, zink, plumbago, arse- ' 



Q. Wlint is siid of these rivers 1 
A. Most of them are navigable. 
Q. What else is foU"d here? « 
A. Caverns, sinks, and subterranean 

streams. 



Q. v. 



A. 

siTld li 



nic, i 
<. H'»w • iho| rl 

A. By pouring melted lead through 
sieves from a high place. 

Q. What are the products? 

A. Co - i, wheat, cotton r tobacco, &c 

Q What •• the spiul ? 

-A. Jefferson City. 
Q What of St L..:.U? 

A. St. Louis is the . • . an^ 

'us many fine 
public buildings. 

Q. How ar»* the people in i 

They are divided in .Mr 



of subter 1 • am . 

id. 

; ! and 
;, having 

■• 
til petre. 

■■ hea t, tobs 



A. 1' • 
and fome cotl 

Q. F-r wh.» l i« 
A. For its fi 

Q Wh : 

A. Col 

Q What i 

A. Frankfort. 
Q Wha'i i 1 said 

A. They are .. Southern 

i fch iii' i „.. .• 

I independence. 



LESSON XXVI 

Q Row is . 

A. Kentucky and Virginia on the north 
INoftb Carolina on the east ; Georgia, Al- 



LESSON XXV. 

Q How is Kentucky hounded ? 

On the north by the Ohio ri a and Mi'ssissippVon the^uthTaud 



the east by Virginia • on the south 1'. : Missouri and Arkansas on the west. 

Tennessee : and on the west by the Mis- q jj w j* Ih ,. st »te divided ? 

sissippi river. r A . i nto East ; Middle and West Ten 

Q. Name the principal rivera ? nos 

A. Tennessee, Cumberland. GreehJ Q. What mountains extend through this St* 
Kentucky, Licking and Sandy. j A. Into Alleghany and Cumberland. 



46 



GEOGRAPHICAL READER 



Q. Mention the principal minerals? 

A. 1 :•!, coal and salt. 

Q. V 

A. Agricult 

18 ? 

A. Indian i j cotton. 

A. A p rolina. 

Q, V 

A. Made pro> >r educating the 

child] 

Q- v 

A. Na: . 

Q. V 

A. Oi is a 

beautiful 

What <i> v r - G 

A. The church pub- 

lishii foka were 

• 
A. Sb ■ 
the i 

Q. Pi 

par- 
ity of our glorious count] 



Q T ;■ ■ 

oili- 
er by certain i • 

ani] 
red. 

A. The Caucasian ri 



Q. Whore ifl tbifl race found ? 

A. In Europe and America. 

ill of the Caucasiau ra< 
It is superior to all "others in intel- 
[\ y and coura . 

led ? 
lab race. 
Q ' f ice chiefly to be fouud ? 

A. » i! | Japan. 

<;>.. V ik race called ? 

A. The Ethiopian race. 
Q. Where are • found ? 

A. In Africa and Australia, with the 

of America. 
■Q. /. n raae. called 7 

A. The Malay race, 
ive? 

A. In most of the Islands of the Pacific 
an. 

A. In the' Peninsula of Malacca (in 
Ana.) 

Q. What is the R^ 
A. The American ri 
Q. What cIops the American race include? 
A. All the Ind tans of the Western Con- 
, except the Esquimaux. 

Esquimaux beloag ? 
A; To the golian, or Yellow race. 

i the 

q. \ forma of religion, 

i irld V 

A. Different ideas of a Supreme Being, 
Q. N of religion. 

A. The Christian, Jewish, Mohomme- 
dan and Pagan. 



GEOGKAPHICAL EEADEE. 



47 



Q. In what do the Christians believe ? Q. [■ > we find mos-t inland trade 

A. In Jeeus Christ, as the Savior ofj A. In countries that are civilized. 



mankind, and the Old and New Testa 
ment as the Word of God. 

Q. By wbom is the Christian religion profissed ? 

A. By the most enlightened nations of 

the earth . 

Q. Name the great classes of its foil 



Q. Whal country aloo has a large 

com rn 

. China. 

Q. 'irried on 

barbai 

A. By caravans of • ■ 



A. Protestant, adherents of the Greek, q. \y pose? 



Church, and Koman Catfi 

Q. What do the Jews beli 

A. The old Testament as 
God. 

Q. What do they reject ? 

A. Christ and his Gospel, and i 
Messiah, or Sayior, yet to come. 

Q. Who are the Mohamcdons ? 

A. The followers of Mohammed . 

Prophet, who lived in Arabia y about 100 
years after Christ. 

Q. What do they believe*? 

A. They believe in one God, an 1 I 
Mohammed is his Prophet. 

Q. What is a Prophet ? 

A. One who foretells future events. 
. Q. What is the Pagan faith ? 

A. The Pagans believe in false Gods, 
and worship, many different objects, as 
idoVs, beasts, and Serpents. 

LESSON XXVIII. 

MMEKH-' 



m 



A. In 

Q- Whal that aid in 

A. The winds, water, and currents of 

me. 
Q. 

nes of the air in 

Q. What duthc 1 

A. Constant motion and regular cur- 
rents. 

Q- ts? 

A. From 50 to ( y. 

Q- S currents 7 

A. By bey aid the 

Is on in r 

• CO ? 

A. A fine iula. m \ bids 



Q. What is Col tnefce 

A. Trade between different, countries.} 011 tl: 

Q. How is mi • com mere ir traae? 

principal Commercial cities carried on .' A. An unl ais- 

A. By vessels which cross the ocean, [erablei and hellish* Yankee Nation. 



OOISriMESKTS. 



XUESXTCES'TOr. 



on 


Page 


■ 


Pag 


I 


What Geography means 


5 


m One * 


:;:; 


g 


Change of Seasons 


5 


1 Lesson Two 




• > 


Land 


6 


Lesson Three 


34 


1 


Water 


6 


Lesson Four 


34 




Hemisphere 


7 


Lesson Five 




. 


Points of the Compass 


7 


Lesson Six 






• and Railroai 8 


8 


Lesson Seven 






Latitude and Longitude 


8 


Lesson Eight 


3ti 


9 


Zom 


9 


Lesson Nine 


37 




Ra 


10 


Lesson Ten 


38 


It 


A in erica 


n 


Lesson Eleven 




12 


North Ameri< ;1 a 


12 


- D Twelve - 




' 1 


ii h America 


' 


•i Thirteen 






inia 


18 

-I rt 


son Fourteen 
i. Fifteen 


41 




'arolina 
itb Carol i 


19 

'JO 


. 








- ' 


■ 






. 


22 


. i 






a 




. ■ 






i 


24. , 


• 


1 
















DfcSSOD 'J v . 




i 




25 


Lesson T 






State 




on Twe?i 


45 


25 






Lesson Twenty-Seventh 




26 


fctate ci' r X ■■ ■ 


. 2* 


Lesson TwenK-Eight 


•> V 



P H8.5